Russia has used its veto at the UN to block a draft resolution to set up an international tribunal into the MH17 air disaster in July 2014.
It was the only nation at the 15-member UN Security Council to oppose the move, triggering widespread condemnation.
The Malaysian Airlines flight from Amsterdam to Kuala Lumpur crashed in eastern Ukraine, killing all 298 people on board.
Pro-Russian rebels in the area have denied shooting down the aircraft.
Western nations and Ukraine say there is evidence it was hit by a Russian-supplied Buk anti-aircraft missile – a claim also denied by Russia.
Malaysia pushed for an international tribunal to try those responsible. The move was backed by the Netherlands – which had 196 nationals on board – Ukraine, Belgium and Australia.
Moscow has blamed the government in Kiev for the disaster.